Strategies to Improve the Care of MS in Women

Menarche, Menstruation, Menopause, and MS

Jacqueline Bernard, MD
University of Chicago Medical Center

Patricia K. Coyle, MD
Stony Brook University


Menarche and MS:
Ascherio A. Environmental factors in multiple sclerosis. Expert Rev Neurother. 2013;13(12s):39.

Ramagopalan SV, Valdar W, Criscuoli M, et al; Canadian Collaborative Study Group. Age of puberty and the risk of multiple sclerosis: a population based study. Eur J Neurol. 2009;16(3):342-347.

Kavak KS, Teter BE, Hagemeier J, Zakalik K, Weinstock-Guttman B; on behalf of the New York State Multiple Sclerosis Consortium. Higher weight in adolescence and young adulthood is associated with an earlier age at multiple sclerosis onset. Mult Scler. 2014 Nov 12. pii: 1352458514555787. [Epub ahead of print]

Menstruation and MS:
Nabavi SM, Koupai SA, Nejati MR, Garshasbi E, Jalali MR. Menstrual irregularities and related plasma hormone levels in multiple sclerosis patients treated with beta interferone. Acta Med Iran. 2010;48(1):36-41.